Relative Pronouns

You might have gone through the rules from 1 to 19 in the previous lesson. This lesson, Relative Pronouns, is continued from the previous lesson, and so, rules will be starting from 20.

The more popular Relative Pronouns are – who, whom, whose, which, that and what.

The following are the Rules of their correct use –

Rule 20 – ‘who’

Who’ is used in the Nominative case only for Persons, both in the Singular and Plural Numbers. ‘Who’ is not used for inanimate things. For animals also ‘who’ is not generally used. ‘Who’ is also used for People and Those. As –
  1. I know the man who came here yesterday.
  2. He is the thief who was caught red-handed.
  3. All the people who came here were happy.
  4. I know all those who were invited.

Rule 21 – ‘whom’

Whom’ is used only for Persons in the Objective/Accusative case both in Singular and Plural Numbers. As –

  1. The man whom I met yesterday has come.
  2. The boy whom i gave the books has secured first division.

Rule 22 – ‘which’

Which’ is used for animals and inanimate things. As –
  1. The pen which I purchased yesterday has been lost.
  2. The cow which stands there is very gentle.
  3. The house which has a high gate is mine.
Note:–  In Prepositional cases, the Preposition is always used before ‘which’. As –
  1. The post for which I applied is temporary.
  2. I don't remember the date in which he was born.
  3. Thus is the book about which I told you.
  4. This is the last chance on which i depend.
  5. The book of which the cover is torn is not mine.

Rule 23 – ‘whose’

Whose’ is used in Possessive Case both for Persons and animals. As –
  1. The boy whose father is the Principal is my friend.
  2. The girl whose eyes are blue is very sweet.
  3. Mark whose brother came yesterday has gone home.
Note –  Sometimes ‘whose’ is used for inanimate things also. As –
  • The sun whose rays give us light also give us life.

Rule 24 – ‘that’

(A)That’ is used both for animate and inanimate things both in Singular and Plural Numbers.
That’ has no Possessive/Genitive Case, and therefore no Preposition can be used before it. If it is very necessary to use a Preposition, it can be placed at the end of the sentence. In such a case, the sentence can be completed without ‘that’ also. As –
  1. I know the house that he lives in. Or,
    I know the house he lives in.
  2. I catch the point that you are hinting at. Or,
    I catch the point you are hinting at.
  3. I have not yet read the book that you suggested to me.
  4. I have lost the pen that you gave me.
(B) In the following cases, the use of ‘that’ is preferred to that of ‘who’ or ‘which’. As –
  1. After the Superlative Degree
    • Gandhi was the greatest man that modern India produced.
    • He is the best speaker that I have ever heard.
  2. After these words – all, same, any, none, nothing, only, anything, anybody, nobody, little, somebody, no one. As –
    • This is all the statement that he gave.
    • He is the same boy that came yesterday.
    • It is only the fools that talk that way.
    • It is not for nothing that I have been labouring so hard.
    • There was not any that could be heard.
    • There was none that was not moved to tears.
  3. After Interrogative Pronoun who/what
    • What is it that troubles you so much?
    • What is there that I cannot do?
    • Who am I that you should care for?
  4. After two Antecedents, one of which stands for a Person and the other for an animal or thing. As –
    • The rider and his horse that tried to cross the river were drowned.
    • The driver and his bus that crossed the lane struck against a tree.

Rule 25 – ‘what’

Relative Pronoun ‘what’ is used for things only. It is used without an Antecedent, and it means ‘that which’. As –

  1. What cannot be cured must be endured.
  2. What I told you is correct.
  3. I know what you want to say.
It would be wrong to use an Antecedent before ‘what’. As –
  • The story what I read was good.
This sentence is wrong because Antecedent ‘story’ has been used before ‘what’. Its correct firm would be –
  • The story that I read was good.

Rule 26 – ‘but’ as a Relative Pronoun

Sometimes, ‘but’ is used as a Relative Pronoun, it which case it means ‘who not/which not’. As –
  1. There is none but admires you.
    (but admires = who does not admire)
  2. There is no problem but can be solved.
    (but can be solved = which cannot be solved)
  3. There is none but loves his country.
    (but loves = who does not love)

«Previous   Next »

Pronouns – Its Forms

Personal Pronouns


There are three Persons of Personal Pronouns. They are —
  1. First Person
  2. Second Person
  3. Third Person
All these three Persons have different forms in different cases (Nominative, Objective and Possessive). Every student must knew these different forms very clearly, because without this knowledge they cannot be used correctly. The different forms are these –

I. Forms of First Person (Both Masculine and Feminine)

Case
Singular
Plural

Nominative
Objective (Accusative)
Possessive (Genitive)
I
Me
My, Mine
We
Us
Our, Ours

II. Forms of Second Person (Both Masculine and Feminine)

Case
Singular
Plural

Nominative
Objective (Accusative)
Possessive (Genitive)
You, thou
You, thee
Your, yours/Thy, thine
You, ye
You
Your, yours

Note:–  Thou, thee, thy, thine and ye are no longer in popular use.

III. Forms of Third Person (In different Genders)


Pronouns – Its Forms (Formation of Pronouns

IV. Forms of Relative and Interrogative Pronouns

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns have the same forms —

Case
Singular and Plural
Masculine and Feminine
Singular and Plural
Neuter

Nominative
Objective (Accusative)
Possessive (Genitive)
Who
Whom
Whose
Which
Which
Whose, of which

Note:–  Relative Pronoun ‘that’ has the same form in Singular and Plural Numbers and also in the Nominative and Accusative cases. It has no Genitive case.

V. Forms of Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns

Pronoun
Reflexive and Emphatic Form


I
You
He
She
It
We
They
Myself
Yourself (in Singular), Yourselves (in Plural)
Himself
Herself
Itself
Ourselves
Themselves

«Previous   Next »


Pronoun – Correct Uses

The following are the Rules of correct use of Pronouns —


Personal Pronoun


Rule 1 – Number, Person and Gender

The first and basic rule of the use of Pronoun is that it must have the same Number, Person and Gender as the Number, Person and Gender of the Noun for which it has been used. As –

  1. He has done his work.
  2. She has done her work.
  3. You have done your work.
  4. I have done my work.
  5. We have done our work.
  6. They have done their work.

Rule 2 – Nominative Pronoun

Nominative Pronoun are used as the Subject of a Verb.
(He, She, I, You, We, They are in the Nominative Form). As –
  1. He is a good boy.
  2. She is going there.
  3. They are coming.
  4. You can go.

Rule 3 – Complement of the Verb ‘to be’

If a Verb ‘to be’ has a Pronoun for its complement, the Pronoun must be used in the Nominative form. As –
  1. It is I (not me) who came yesterday.
  2. It is he (not me) who will help you.
  3. If I were she (not her), I wouldn't do it.
  4. It is they (not them) who saved us.
Note:–  It should be remembered that in Exclamatory and Predictive use, Personal Pronoun can be used in the Objective form. As –
  • It is me! It wasn't him!

Rule 4 – Objective Form

If a Personal Pronoun is the Object of a Verb or a Preposition, it must be used in the Objective form. (Me, Us, Him, Them, Her, You are in the Objective Form). As –
  1. I knew him (not he) well.
  2. She comes to me (not I) for help.
  3. Our teacher has asked us (not we) to remain in the class.
  4. I have told them(not they) to go away from here.
  5. He depends upon me (not I).
  6. I go to them (not they) for guidance.

Rule 5 – Pronouns of Different Persons

If Pronouns of different Persons are to be used with the same Verb, they must be used in the following order –
  1. In Singular Number, ‘You’ (Second Person) should come first, ‘He’ (Third Person) should come next, and ‘I’ (First Person) should come last. This order is indicative of refined culture and good behaviour. In brief –
    You+He+I, i.e., 2+3+1

  2. In Plural Number –
    We + You + They, i.e., 1 + 2 + 3

  3. If the sentence has a bad sense, or is expressive of some error or fault, the order should be thus –
    I/We + You + He/They, i.e., 1 + 2 + 3
As –
(A)
  1. You and he and I are good friends.
  2. We and you and they  can live together.
  3. You and he are classmates
  4. John and I live in the same house.
  5. You and I can travel together.
(B)
  1. We and you and they can work together.
  2. We and they were in the same class.
(C)
  1. I and you and he have to accept our fault.
  2. You and he will be punished.

Rule 6 – Pronoun for a Collective Noun

With a Collective Noun the Pronoun used is Singular or Plural according to the sense. In the Singular Number we use ‘it/its’ and in Plural ‘they/them’. As –

Singular:
  1. The fleet has sailed away on its voyage.
  2. The jury has given its verdict.
  3. The crew is ready. It is boarding the ship within minutes.
Plural:
  1. The jury are divided in their opinion.
  2. The government are ready to revise their proposals.

Rule 7 – Pronoun for more than two Nouns

When two or more Nouns are joined by ‘and’, the Pronoun used for them is always Plural. As –
  1. John and Mathew are friends. They go to their school together.
  2. Harry and his friends have completed their work.

Rule 8 – Pronoun for Each or Every + Noun

When two or more Nouns are joined by ‘and’, and before each Noun there comes ‘each’ or ‘every’, the Pronoun used is always Singular. As –
  1. Each worker and each mason has come on his work.
  2. Each clerk and each typist has left his seat.

Rule 9 – Each, Either, Neither

They always take Singular Verb and Singular Possessive. As –
  1. Each of them is sure to get his chance.
  2. Either of them is free to bring his book.
  3. Neither of the workers has brought his tools.

Rule 10 – Either and Neither

Either and Neither are used for two things only, not for more than two. As –
  1. You can choose either of these two (not more than two) pen.
  2. Neither of the two brothers was selected.

Rule 11 – Anyone and None

When more than two things are referred to, we use ‘anyone’ in place of either, and ‘None’ in place of neither. As –
  1. Anyone of these four boys can go with me.
  2. None of these ten applicants is qualified.

Rule 12 – Each other/One another

They are called Reciprocal Pronouns. ‘each other’ is used for two things or persons, and ‘one another’ for more than two. As –
  1. The two brothers help each other.
  2. All the five brothers help one another.
  3. The two wheels rub against each other.
Note:–  In the modern usage, there is believed to be little difference between ‘each other’ and ‘one another’. Now, sometimes, ‘each other’ is used for more than two, and ‘one another’ for only two. As –
  1. These three sisters really love each other.
  2. Let us all help each other.

Rule 13 – Both and All

Both’ is used for two, and ‘All’ for more than two. As –
  1. Both the pens are good. (i.e., only two pens)
  2. Both the men (i.e., two men) are idle.
  3. All the pens (i.e., more than two) are good.
  4. All the men (i.e., more than two men) are idle.

Rule 14 – Pronoun for ‘or’, ‘either...or’/‘neither...nor’ + Noun

When two or more than two Nouns are joined with or, either...or, neither...nor, the Pronoun used for them is always Singular. As –
  1. Peter or Harry has lost his book.
  2. Either the lawyer or his clerk will be in his office.
  3. Neither Anthony nor Veronica has done his work.

Rule 15 – Pronoun for ‘or/nor’ + Singular and Plural Nouns

When a Singular Noun and a Plural Noun are joined by ‘or/nor’, the Pronoun used for them is always Plural. As –
  1. Either the Principal or the teachers had neglected their duty.
  2. Neither the father nor his sons had kept their promise.

Rule 16 – Pronouns for different Persons

When more than one Pronoun are of different Persons, and only one Pronoun is later to be used for them, there should be First Plural for First + Third, again First Plural for First + Second, and Second Person for Second + Third. As –
  1. You and I have dine our duty.
  2. You and John have dine your duty.

Rule 17 – Pronoun after than/as

A peculiar difficulty arises in the correct use of Pronoun after ‘than’ or ‘as’. The problem is to decide whether the Pronoun to be used after ‘than’ or ‘as’ should be in the Nominative form or Objective/Accusative form. In thus connection it should be remembered that the Pronoun used after ‘than’ or ‘as’ is the short form of a whole clause. Thus, the full form of “I am taller than he” will be “I am taller than he is”. Therefore, in order to decide whether the Nominative or the Objective form of the Pronoun should come after ‘than’ or ‘as’, we should mentally speak the whole clause beginning with ‘than’ or ‘as’, and as soon as we do so, the correct firm of the Pronoun will come in our mind. As –
  1. I am stronger than he (is).
  2. I am as strong as he (is).
  3. He loves you more than I (love you).
  4. I love you more than he (loves you).
  5. He gave you more marks than (he gave) me.
  6. I shall give you as many books as (I shall give) him.
Note:–  In sentences containing the Verbs of Incomplete Predication (suggesting the idea of being, becoming or seeming), Pronoun of Objective firm can also be used in place of Nominative form after ‘than’ or ‘as’. As –
  • He is taller than me.
This form is also acceptable as correct.

Rule 18 – Pronoun ‘It’

Pronoun ‘it’ is used in the following cases –
  1. For Inanimate things. As –
    • This is your house. It is a big house.
  2. For small animals, birds and insects. As –
    • There is a parrot. It is green.
    • I have a dog. It is very active.
  3. For very little children. As –
    • The child has wetten its napkin.
  4. For such statements as have already been referred to earlier. As –
    • He is giving a false statement; as he knows it.
    • He deserved his demotion; as he knew it.
  5. For the imaginary subject of the verb ‘to be’, while its real subject comes later. As –
    • It is certain that he will come.
    • It is easy to find its solution.
    • It is doubtful whether he will succeed.
  6. For laying emphasis on some Noun or Pronoun which comes after it. As –
    • It was you who first made the offer.
    • It was I who first pointed out the mistake.
    • It was this place where we met first.
    • It must be a foolish man who has been cheated twice by the same man.
    • It is this kind of behaviour that annoys everybody.
  7. For an imaginary or uncertain Nominative of an impersonal verb. As –
    • It rains. It thunders.
    • It snows. It blows.
  8. For referring to weather or time. As –
    • It is a fine weather.
    • It is 9 O'clock.
    • It is winter.
    • It is half past two.

Rule 19 – Pronoun ‘This’ or ‘It’

A difficulty often arises with regard to the use of ‘This’ or ‘It’ in a sentence. It has been made amply clear above that ‘It’ is only an imaginary Nominative, while ‘This’ is a real Nominative, or gives some definite reference or information about the real Nominative. ‘This’ is used to give the name, introduction or any other information about some one. It is used only for weather, season, time or some impersonal subject. ‘This’ refers to a person, thing, any specific information or quality, or nearness/closeness. As –
  1. This is my brother.
  2. This is a cow.
  3. This is BBC News.
  4. This is my point of view.
  5. This is 351558. (Telephone Number)


Tips And Tricks For Newbies To Avoid From Being Disqualified From Amazon Affiliate

I have written a post on How to make money with Amazon Affiliate Program previously. I wrote this post again as it is very important for newbie Amazon Affiliates as they can be disqualified from the affiliate program for not being able to sell.

For every new Amazon Affiliate, it is very important to know that they can be disqualified from Amazon affiliates if he is unable to sell any products within 90 days from the date of registration as affiliate. Yes, for someone who is new to affiliate marketing could be difficult for him to sell products within a couple of months due to many other reasons. Below is a short story of what I did to avoid myself from being disqualified from Amazon affiliate member.

Learn from my experience

This might be somewhat funny for others, but I have to do as I was unable to sell and I was to get disqualified from it.

It's been 70 days since I join Amazon Affiliate and only one month left for me to sell. One day, while I was having a good time with my sister at home and we were discussing things with many topics. By the time, I asked her what thing she wished to have but couldn't find in the local market. She replied to me that she wanted to buy an Android phone, and she wasn't able to find it in the local market by that time as android phone was just launched some couple of months ago.

While we were chit-chatting about it, I was on my laptop, in Amazon Associates. By the time, I was browsing and finally landed on and found HTC android device. I show her quickly and she was really impressed. I explained to her how she could buy from Amazon and got sent to her address within seven days.

On the next day evening she told me that she wanted to buy. So, my luck came. I guide her throughout the process using her computer, and that evening she even bought other products like earphones and others using my affiliate links.

By that time, as I was new to affiliate marketing and blogging, and had been just started learning, I was unable to sell any products for two months. But as I got experienced day by day, I started selling many products.

One product from Amazon which I sold most is Anti Snoring Device.
Anti snoring device from amazon store
Anti Snoring Device

It isn't costly, but the demand was really high which makes me earn more than I expect. What I want to say is, apart from pestering your sisters, brothers, parents, and other relatives, try products selling which are simple and cheap but with high demand and in the market.

For best result in affiliate marketing, do marketing research first, then start promoting products which you found out to be good to promote, and that should be reachable to the right persons and audience. This will greatly help you and promote you as an affiliate marketer.

Lastly, hard work and perseverance is the main key to success in your career. So, work a bit harder and be smart at what you promote. Success will follow you behind.


If you find this article helpful, please leave a comment below.


Make Money Online With Amazon Affiliate Programs

What Is Amazon Affiliate Program?

Amazon Affiliate Program, with no doubt, could be said as the best and the easiest of the affiliate networks could be found in the internet, where every persson, whether new or old marketers could join easily. In the meantime, Amazon is one of the most prominent and the largest online shopping website in the present century.

Amazon Affiliate Program, with no doubt, could be said as the best and the easiest of the affiliate networks we find on the Internet, where every person, whether new or old marketers could join easily. In the meantime, Amazon is one of the most prominent and the largest online shopping website in the present century. Almost everything that you want to buy online could be found in Amazon, from needles and pins to heavy machinery and cars, or even larger than that too.

Amazon was founded on July 5, 1994, by Jeffrey Preston Bezos (also known as Jeff Bezos), an American technology entrepreneur, an investor and philanthropist. Oh, no, I've gone too far! As it's not a story site, let's end up here about Bezos and others.

Our main point would be How could we too make money using this great online shopping site? Almost everyone knows what Amazon really is. But when it comes to making money, rather than shopping online, most people aren't aware that there has been a possibility of making money from Amazon. Here, I'm going to explain point by point for better understanding.

How To Join Amazon Associates Program

The good news is that when you join Amazon Associate Program you are going to be an Amazon affiliate marketer. This means, you are going to be able to sale what ever you find and like or your favourite products on amazon Shopping site with a just an amazon affiliate links. Is that easy? Yes, it is really easy to become Amazon Affiliate Marketer.
Now, the question may arise ‘How to join?’ To join Amazon Associates, follow the following steps below —

  1. Type amazon.com or .in (if you are Indian) on your browser search bar.
  2. You will be landing on the home page the site. Now, scroll down the page to the footer. On the footer menu you can see ‘Become an affiliate’ at the Make money with us section. Now, click the ‘Become an affiliate’ link. See the screenshot below –

    amazon.com footer page
  3. Click the ‘Join now for free’ button on the top right corner of the page. See the screenshot
    Join now for free
  4. Fill up your name, gmail address and password, and then click the button.
  5. Fill up all the details in the provided fields, your name, address and so on.
  6. Enter your website domain name and mobile apps (if you have. If you don't have mobile apps leave it blank). Here, if you don't have website or blog, you need to create at least one. You can create one with blogger blogspot for free. Learn how to create a free blog using  blogger blogspot. Then click ‘Next’ at the left down corner of the page.
  7. Here, you will be asked to fill your profile. Fill up all the requirements, and then click ‘Next’ again.
  8. Now, you are set up. You can start making money with Amazon Associates and earn incomes.
After you have signed up with Amazon Associates, the good thing about it is that apart from your blog or websites, you can even sell products you want with your affiliate links on many social media sites like Facebook, twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, etc. and earn commission from them.

Below are the Commission structures in percentage you would earn by promoting products from Amazon —

For amazon.in (India)
Amazon Affiliate Program, with no doubt, could be said as the best and the easiest of the affiliate networks could be found in the internet, where every persson, whether new or old marketers could join easily. In the meantime, Amazon is one of the most prominent and the largest online shopping website in the present century.

For amazon.com (U.S.A)
Amazon Affiliate Program, with no doubt, could be said as the best and the easiest of the affiliate networks could be found in the internet, where every persson, whether new or old marketers could join easily. In the meantime, Amazon is one of the most prominent and the largest online shopping website in the present century.

The above table means, for instance, if a person sells an Android phone which cost 10000INR whose advertising rate is 2.5%, that means he earns 250INRas a commission.


One very important thing to keep in mind for Amazon Affiliates are they need to sell at least one product using their affiliate links within 90 days from the date of registration as affiliate member. Failure of which, are disqualified from Amazon affiliate. So, in order to avoid this, I have also written a post on tips and tricks to avoid from being disqualified from Amazon Affiliate Program. It would be useful if you are new to Amazon Affiliate Program. You can go through it.


Suggested reading –

Noun – Gender Formation

The following are the three Rules of formation of Feminine Gender from Masculine Gender –

#1. By adding ‘ess, ine, trix, a’ to the word in the Masculine Gender. The addition of ‘ess’ is the most popular. As –

(a) By adding ‘ess’ in the Masculine words –
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Author
Baron
Count
Giant
Heir
Host
Jew
Lion
Manager
Authoress
Boroness
Countess
Giantess
Heiress
Hostess
Jewess
Lioness
Manageress
Mayor
Patron
Peer
Poet
Priest
Prophet
Shepherd
Steward
Viscount
Mayoress
Patroness
Peeress
Poetess
Priestess
Prophetess
Shepherdess
Stewardess
Viscountess

(b) By removing the last Vowel in the Masculine word before adding ‘ess’ in the following words –
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Actor
Benefactor
Conductor
Enchanter
Founder
Hunter
Instructor
Abbot
Duke
Emperor
Marquis
Actress
Benefactress
Conductress
Enchantress
Foundress
Huntress
Instructress
Abbess
Duchess
Empress
Marqioness
Preseptor
Prince
Songster
Temptor
Seamaster
Tiger
Traitor
Waitor
Master
Murderer
Sorcerer
Preseptress
Princess
Songstress
Temptress
Seamistress
Tigress
Traitress
Waitress
Mistress
Murdress
Sorceress

(c) By adding  ‘ine’, ‘trix’, ‘a’ –
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Hero
Administrator
Executor
Testator
Heroine
Administratrix
Executrix
Testatrix
Czar
Sultan
Signor
Fox
Czarina
Sultana
Signora
Vixen

#2. By adding an entirely new word before or after the Masculine word. As –

Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Bull-calf
Cock-sparrow
He-goat
He-bear
Jack├žass
Man-metchant
Cow-calf
Hen-sparrow
She-goat
She-bear
Jenny-ass
Maid-merchant
Grandfather
Great-uncle
Landlord
Milk-man
Peacock
Washerman
Grandmother
Great-aunt
Landlady
Milkmaid
Peahen
Washerwoman

#3. The feminines of the following Masculines are quite different from their originals. As –
Masculine
Feminine
Masculine
Feminine
Bachelor
Boy
Brother
Buck
Bull/ox
Bullock
Cock
Colt
Dog
Drake
Drone
Earl
Father
Gander
Gentleman
Maid/spinster
Girl
Sister
Doe
Cow
Heifer
Hen
Filly
Bitch
Duck
Bee
Countess
Mother
Goose
Lady
Hart
Horse
Husband
King
Lord
Man
Monk/Friar
Nephew
Papa
Sir
Ram
Stay
Son
Uncle
Wizard
Roe
Mare
Wife
Queen
Lady
Woman
Nun
Niece
Mamma
Madam
Ewe
Hind
Daughter
Aunt
Witch

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